There are many different types of color blindness. Which one are you? In my case I have serious issues discriminating small differences in hues in the red, orange, yellow, green region of the spectrum (deuteranomaly, I read). This happens to me pretty often; invited for dinner last weekend, I identified the hostess's new wall color as orange, not yellow. Choosing socks is fun too.
Am I a good photographer? It's not me to say, but to cope with it I do rely on software tools and basic color knowledge. For example, I can't identify a color-cast as good as you guys can, but I experiment with what Lightroom or Photoshop will suggest to fix my White Balance. If the resulting temperature (in Kelvin) is way too low or too high, I know it's probably already too cold/blue (respectively hot/orange) for my regular viewers.
I do like to punch the contrast / vibrancy of my photos, most likely because it helps me see more saturated colors, but I try to keep that in mind so that it's not too "cranked" for non color-blind. As a rule of thumb, whenever I move a slider that affects colors in post-process, by the time the change is noticeable to me I know I need to backtrack a bit so that it's not overdone.
It doesn't hurt to know about color spaces, about the Hue wheel in HSL more specifically, what neighboring colors are, etc. When in doubt, try to use a color picker in Photoshop/LR and compare to hard numbers.
Finally, I use calibrated high-gamut color displays for both my desktop and laptop to avoid compounding the problems. They can both represent about 100% of the AdobeRGB color space. Considering I have problem with changes in hues, I figured that I would at least not blame it on my monitors.