You can learn photography on any camera with full manual controls, including the HS30 EXR. As you suspect, you wont get the same results but you get as close to DSLR controls with the HS30.
The zoom ring is mechanical which is rare on a fixed lens camera but is exactly how DSLRs do it. It is infinitely precise and the viewfinder shows 100% coverage, just like on a high end DSLR which gives you the ability to compose perfectly.
The focus ring is fly-by-wire so the feel is not the same. It rotates freely and has more throw but this is much better than using cursor keys on most other fixed-lens cameras.
There will of course be lots more differences but as you learn, it is a good place to start. The zoom range is hard to match on a DSLR and that is OK. At the end of your training you will even be able to run a stats program to gather which focal-length you used the most and it will great to know when it is time to buy lenses.
Within a minute answering this, I see you got the opposite answer too :) It is certainly OK to learn with a DSLR first. There will be less of a jump later but my original answer still stands, you can learn without one and that is how I did it back when 7X was a long zoom!
Actually, images captured with my fixed-lens camera have sold just as well as those from my DSLRs. In this gallery of images from Peru, almost half are shot with a fixed lens camera which is a decade old now. If you cannot tell which ones are which, then the ultra-zoom will do :)