I have a Nikon D80 50mm camera with a 52mm Haze filter. I would like to attach some 58mm lenses that I have but not sure which adapters I need. The 58mm lenses have male threads that would attach to the camera body and the camera body (and 52mm filter) has female threads. Any help would be greatly appreciated!
The "52mm" refers only to the size of the filter, and has nothing to do with which lenses you can use on your camera.
Your Nikon D80 will accept (almost) any lens that uses the Nikon F mount (the bayonet mount at the rear of the lens). It will operate best with autofocus lenses (AF or AF-S) lenses having a "D" or a "G" in the model name. (The "D" indicates that the lens transmits focal distance information to the camera for metering purposes; the "G" indicates that the lens is a newer design having no manual aperture ring.) In manual focus mode, you can also use AI-S (automatic aperture indexing, with the aperture controlled from the camera body) and AI (auto-indexing, but the aperture must be set on the lens). Some older lenses will be of a "non-CPU" type (they don't have the electronics to tell the camera what they are and what they're doing), and will require you to do everything manually.
As long as you stick to recent-vintage autofocus lenses made for the Nikon F mount, whether full-frame or "DX" models, you should be able to use all of your camera's features.
I think you mean you have a Nikon D80 camera body with a 50mm lens. The Camera isn't 50mm. The measurements you mention are of somewhat unrelated elements.
For completeness sake, I'll mention another camera dimension that is usually measured in mm
The D80 body doesn't have threads in its lens mount, it has lugs.
The Nikon D80 has a bayonet lens-mount not a threaded screw mount. The D80 lens mount is called Nikon-F and has a throat diameter of 44mm.
Canon EOS cameras have a throat diameter of 58mm.
You cannot mount a Canon Lens on a Nikon body using a simple adapter because the Nikon's throat is too narrow and because Canon lenses are designed to be mounted closer to the sensors focal plane than Nikon bodies permit.
Screw mounts for lenses were used on older film cameras. A popular size was M42. I don't think there was a popular 58 mm screw mount for lenses.
There are adapters for mounting M42 lenses on Nikon bodies but for the reasons given above, they have their own lens elements built ion to compensate for the increased distance between sensor and lens. This makes them more expensive and is likley to degrade the image quality a bit.
Screw mounts are still used to mount filters on the front of lenses. Many smaller Nikon lenses have a 52mm screw thread for filters. This is irrelevant to your problem unless you are reversing the lens for macro work.
Your question is confusing because you do not say what your 58mm refers to.
If what you have is a Nikon-mount lens with 58mm focal-length then you have to replace the 50mm on the camera. This is what other answers are talking about.
What I suspect is that you do not have a real lens but an accessory optics (like a close-up diopter) and that one has a 58mm thread. Since your lens has a 52mm filter, what you need is a 52mm to 58mm step-up ring. This costs around $10 and replaces the haze filter, giving a 58mm thread to which you attach the accessory optic.