Capturing three colours per photosites is in principle far superior to capturing one colour and interpolation. So much so that a three colour sensor will produce an image with equivalent detail to a one colour sensor with twice as many total pixels.
Why not three times as many? Well the colour channels in an image are not independent but correlated with eachother that means knowing the red value often gives you information about the green and blue values.
Three colour sensors have the additional advantage that colour aliasing artifacts don't occur during raw conversion, meaning manufacturers can do away with anti aliasing filters to improve sharpness.
However in practice three colour sensors have problems with light sensitivity leading to poor performance in low light. In addition to this there practical/economic problems with producing three-colour sensors with high pixel densities at low cost, which is another reason why Bayer sensors despite their apparent inferiority have gained almost ubiquitous adoption.