Image/video enhancing to the level suggested in TV shows is simply not possible, and is actually limited by the image capturing device. That's the technology that would need to evolve first.
It is impossible to gain information from a collection of 10 pixels into a recognisable object. At the pixel level, that's the final amount of information provided in the image. You only have 100 blocks of colour in that finite zoom.
You can increase a 10x10 pixel area into 100x100 pixels via interpolation, but the information in the 10x10 pixels is all there is to go by, and interpolation relies on educated guesses based on those 10 x 10 pixels by the software. The result would be a 100 x 100 pixel blur.
Alternatively, take a 2000x2000 pixel image, and interpolate it up 4000x4000 pixels, and some blurs not as clear in the original image may look clearer as possible objects in the larger image purely through pareidolia - but even then that's a guess or supposition. The interpolated image would give the "illusion" of more detail, but still relies on the detail of the original 2000x2000 image capture (or 4,000,000 finite pixels of information).
Image enhancement relies solely on the maximum amount of information captured via the original imaging source, and zooming into pixels is all there is. Some cameras can take very good resolution images, but no piece of software can bring out detail that is not recorded in the original image.
Now, to go back to the CSI shows, most of them grab your standard surveillance camera footage, which to begin with is not particularly high in resolution anyway in real life, so when I see this sort of enhancement on shows it just makes me laugh - as it is impossible even with the most advanced form of image editing software (and PhotoShop is well and truly at the upper end of the advanced scale).
Image enhancement and zooming relies 100% on the information captured by the imaging device - so a surveillance camera capable of capturing say a reflection of a person's face on the side of someone's eye cornea, would need to be super powerful, and would be outrageously expensive. The footage would need to have an outrageously high pixel definition per frame (say 100 megapixels or approx 9.5 terabytes to store 1 second of footage), which would blow out the file size of the footage to the point that each surveillance camera would need a small server farm to hold 24 hrs worth of footage. Very expensive.
The resulting enhancement technology would rely on image capturing devices able to do this level of detailed video and image capturing first, to store the data in a convenient fashion, and be at a point that this is inexpensive to roll out across cities. The file size would be so enourmously large on the video footage (remember about 9.5 terabytes per second) that the software able to do this would need an extremely powerful supercomputer (by today's standards) to run. With technology increasing at the speed that it is, this may be possible at some point in the future, probably in our lifetime.
Only then could they do it, but the images wouldn't be enhanced, they would only be zooming on super detailed imagery.
I know this as I work in digital imagery for a full time living.