Here is an example of a bracketed photo with a range of detail on both ends of the exposure spectrum:
My question is: is there a filter (likely in Photoshop) that can take a set of bracketed photos and extracted/merge the photos?
You are essentially talking about HDR. You can do it in Photoshop (File > Automate > Merge to HDR), or you can use dedicated software like Photomatix. It is tricky to get good looking results.
When done well they can be stunning - unfortunately they aren't often done well.