I believe ICC profiles are mostly used for color equalization; and I wonder whether they can be used to correct spatial differences within the images (e.g. vignetting). I would like to know if the ICC standard supports this, and if so if there are any application to create ICC profiles with spatial information (per-zone characteristic).
No. ICC profiles are only interested in color response (which affects overall contrast too) but nothing spacial.
However, a number of software such as DxO Optics Pro, Bibble Pro and Adobe Photoshop Lightroom support Lens Profiles. Each software comes with a number of them already made but there is also sometimes a tool to create one of your own. Here is the one for Lightroom.